Marjorie, five years older; and Avril, five years younger.
A Drafting and Ratification of the Bill of Rights in the Colonial Period As heirs to the majestic constitutional history of England, the intellectual and political leaders of the new Colonies intended nothing less than to incorporate into their new government the laws and liberties of Englishmen, including the well-established right of the law-abiding citizen to keep and bear arms.
They revered English customs and law. Chief Justice Howard Taft observed that: They were familiar with other forms of government, recent and ancient, and indicated in their discussions earnest study and consideration of many of them; but, when they came to put their conclusions into the form of fundamental law in a compact draft, they expressed themselves in terms of the common law, confident that they could be shortly and easily understood.
As Chief Justice Taft further commented: In commenting upon how the Constitution should properly be read, he said: They argue that the words of the amendment allegedly apply only to the group in our society that is "well regulated" and "keeps and bears arms," the National Guard.
But they are wrong.
Caplan, who has examined this issue in depth, provides this analysis: In that way, when organized the militia would be able to function well when the need arose to muster and be deployed for sudden military emergencies.
Therefore, even if the opening words of the Amendment, "A well regulated militia " somehow would be interpreted as strictly limiting "the right of the people to keep arms"; nevertheless, a properly functioning militia fundamentally presupposes that the individual citizen be allowed to keep, practice, and train himself in the use of firearms.
The National Guard cannot possibly be interpreted as the whole constitutional militia encompassed by the Second Amendment; if for no other reason, the fact that guardsmen are prohibited by law from keeping their own military arms.
Instead, these firearms are owned and annually inventoried by the Federal government, and are kept in armories under lock and key. This Congress was to become the de facto revolutionary government that directed the war for independence.
The principal outcome of this first meeting was the issuance of a petition called the Declaration of Rights and Grievances, an appeal to King George III to restore harmony between Britain and the Colonies. At that time, there was considerable discord between them, chiefly because of the passage by the British Parliament in March of the so-called Intolerable Acts, a series of punitive measures directed against the Colony of Massachusetts for its rebellious conduct, which had been recently evidenced by the Boston Tea Party.
Before adjourning, the First Continental Congress also arranged for a second Congress to take place in Philadelphia if the king failed to respond favorably to their petition. As it turned out, not only did George III fail to respond favorably, he began preparations for war.
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In August he issued a proclamation "for suppressing rebellion and sedition" in the Colonies and hired 20, Hessian mercenaries, who were soon sent to America.
The Second Continental Congress convened on May 10, George Washington was commissioned to organize a continental army, and the Congress formulated regulations for foreign trade, issued paper money, and sent emissaries abroad to negotiate with foreign powers for financial, diplomatic, and military assistance.
Jefferson, aided especially by John Adams, drafted and Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence on July 4, ; and on November 15,Congress drafted and adopted the Articles of Confederation, which were ratified by the thirteen colonies in During much of this period, armed combat had been taking place between the colonists and the British army and its mercenaries.
The conflict ended with the surrender of the British forces at Yorktown on October 19, Subsequently, the states recognized that the Articles of Confederation were flawed, impractical, and urgently in need of amendment, Therefore, the States sent delegates to a convention that convened at the State House in Philadelphia on May 25, The Convention was attended by 55 delegates from twelve states, all prominent political figures of the time, including such luminaries as James Madison, George Mason, Benjamin Franklin, and Alexander Hamilton.
John Jay and Thomas Jefferson did not attend, as they were on diplomatic missions abroad; nor did Patrick Henry or Samuel Adams, both of whom opposed the formation of a strong central government for the new nation. The delegates soon realized that merely amending the Articles of Confederation would not solve the problems facing the States and that a new governing document was required.
After four months of debate, the Constitution was drafted, signed, and then sent to the individual states for ratification, as required by its Article VII. This Article provided that the Constitution could become effective only after ratification by at least two-thirds of the states.
In the months before and after the Constitutional Convention, including the ratification period that lasted until June 21, when New Hampshire became the ninth state to ratify, fulfilling the two-thirds majority ratification requirementnumerous constitutional debates took place in all the states, accompanied by a steady stream of commentary in the popular press about the issues being debated.
It came as no surprise that with all these politicians at work, literally thousands of pages of debate proceedings, records, and suggested amendments were produced.
Reading their words, one tries to imagine what it would be like to be in their company and share in what they must have been feeling. Surely they must have been proud of their stunning victory over the British and full of optimism for their future as free people in a free country.Non-state-based Data Science Scholarships UNDERGRADUATE OR GRADUATE: American Statistical Association-Wiley Best Statistical Analysis and Data Mining Paper Award.
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